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TOEFL Readings 10

             What we today call American folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary,        

            everyday “folks” who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art

            of all kinds, and especially for portraits. Citizens of prosperous, essentially

 Line     middle-class republics ― whether ancient Romans, seventeenth-century Dutch

 (5)       burghers, or nineteenth-century Americans ― have always shown a marked taste for         

            portraiture. Starting in the late eighteenth century, the United States contained                 increasing numbers of such people, and of the artists who could meet their demands.

            The earliest American folk art portraits come, not surprisingly, from New England ― especially Connecticut and Massachusetts ― for this was a wealthy and

 (10)      populous region and the center of a strong craft tradition. Within a few decades after

            the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the population was pushing            

            westward, and portrait painters could be found at work in western New York, Ohio,

            Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri. Midway through its first century as a nation, the   

            United States's population had increased roughly five times, and eleven new states had

 (15)      been added to the original thirteen. During these years the demand for portraits grew

            and grew eventually to be satisfied by the camera. In 1839 the daguerreotype was

            introduced to America, ushering in the age of photography, and within a generation the

            new invention put an end to the popularity of painted portraits. Once again an original

            portrait became a luxury, commissioned by the wealthy and executed by the

 (20)      professional.

                But in the heyday of portrait painting ― from the late eighteenth century until the           

            1850's ― anyone with a modicum of artistic ability could become a limner, as such a         

            portraitist was called. Local craftspeople ― sign, coach, and house painters ― began to

            paint portraits as a profitable sideline ; sometimes a talented man or woman who began

 (25)      by sketching family members gained a local reputation and was besieged with requests

            for portraits ; artists found it worth their while to pack their paints, canvases, and 

            brushes and to travel the countryside, often combining house decorating with portrait



            38. In lines 4-5 the author mentions seventeenth-century Dutch burghers as an                                   example of a group that

               (A) consisted mainly of self-taught artists

               (B) appreciated portraits

               (C) influenced American folk art

               (D) had little time for the arts


            39. The word “marked”in line 5 is closest in meaning to

               (A) pronounced

               (B) fortunate

               (C) understandable

               (D) mysterious


            40. According to the passage, where were many of the first American

              folk art portraits painted?

               (A) In western New York

               (B) In Illinois and Missouri

               (C) In Connecticut and Massachusetts

               (D) In Ohio



            41. The word “this”in line 9 refer to

               (A) a strong craft tradition

               (B) American folk art

               (C) New England

               (D) western New York


            42. How much did the population of the United States increase in the first fifty years

                following independence?

               (A) It became three times larger.

             (B) It became five times larger.

               (C) It became eleven times larger.

             (D) It became thirteen times larger.


            43. The phrase “ushering in”in line 17 is closest in meaning to

               (A) beginning                 (B) demanding

               (C) publishing                (D) increasing


            44. The relationship between the daguerreotype(line 16)and the painted portrait is

                similar to the relationship between the automobile and the

               (A) highway       (B) driver        (C) horse-drawn carriage   (D) engine


            45. According to the passage, which of the following contributed to a decline in the demand               

                for painted portrait?

               (A) The lack of a strong craft tradition

               (B) The westward migration of many painters

               (C) The growing preference for landscape paintings

               (D) The invention of the camera


            46. The word “executed” in line 19 is closest in meaning to

               (A) sold                         (B) requested

               (C) admired                   (D) created


            47. The author implies that most limners (line 22)

               (A) received instruction from traveling teachers

               (B) were women

               (C) were from wealthy families

               (D) had no formal art training


            48. The word “sketching” in line 25 is closest in meaning to

               (A) drawing                    (B) hiring

               (C) helping                     (D) discussing


            49. Where in the passage does the author provide a definition?

               (A) Lines 3-6                  (B) Lines 8-10

               (C) Lines 13-15              (D) Lines 21-23


            50. The phrase “worth their while”in line 26 is closest in meaning to

               (A) essential                  (B) educational

               (C) profitable                  (D) pleasurable