The Great Wall of China zigzags across parts of northern China. It was built section by section over centuries. In fact, there are many gaps between the sections, so the Great Wall isn't a single, solid wall. But if all the sections are measured, the wall is about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers) long!
WHY WAS THE GREAT WALL BUILT?
Since ancient times, Chinese people have built walls to protect their borders. Some walls were built between parts of China that were fighting each other. Other walls protected China from outside invaders.
Grand tombs and gateways to the afterlife—the pyramids of Egypt are among the world’s most magnificent monuments. Their massive size and simple shape fascinate people.
Ancient peoples in the Americas and the Middle East also built pyramids. But the largest and best known were constructed in Egypt more than 3,500 years ago. Around 100 pyramids still stand on the west bank of the Nile River.
ROYAL RESTING PLACES
Pyramids were lavish tombs built only for royalty and other high-ranking people. The ancient Egyptians believed that the spirits of dead people could live on only if their bodies survived.
Do not be bored. Classical music can be very stimulating. Classical music began in Europe in the Middle Ages and continues today.
Classical music is the art music of Europe and North America. When we call it art music, we are distinguishing classical music from popular music and folk music. Art music generally requires more training to write and perform than the other two kinds.
FROM ORCHESTRA TO SOLOIST
Classical music can be written for orchestras (large groups of musicians) and for smaller groups. Some classical music is written for people to sing.
What monument is a symbol of American freedom known around the world? It is the Statue of Liberty in New York City’s harbor.
The statue became a symbol of freedom in the first half of the 20th century. That’s when millions of European immigrants came to the United States by ship and passed through the harbor. The statue of a tall lady holding a torch was a welcoming beacon.
A GIANT SCULPTURE
The Statue of Liberty is a giant sculpture of a woman dressed in flowing robes and wearing a spiked crown. Her right hand holds a gold torch high above her head.
Music is part of every culture on Earth. Many people feel that music makes life worth living. We can make music ourselves if we play an instrument or sing. We can hear music on CDs and on radio or television. Music gives us pleasure. It can cheer us up, excite us, or soothe us.
WHAT IS MUSIC?
Music can be happy, sad, romantic, sleepy, spine-tingling, healing—all kinds of things. But what is it? Some people define it as an artful arrangement of sounds across time. Our ears interpret these sounds as loud or soft, high or low, rapid and short, or slow and smooth. The sounds need to continue for a time in some sort of pattern to become music.